Adanir, Fikret (1998). The Ottoman Peasantries, c.1360-c.1860. In: Tom  Scott (ed.), The Peasantries of Europe. From the Fourteenth to the Eighteenth Centuries (London/New York: Longman), 269-310. (Retrieved from, 29-8-2020). Download

Almond, Ian (2011). Muslims, Protestants and Peasants: Ottoman Hungary 1526‒1683. In: Two Faiths, One Banner, When Muslims Marched with Christians across Europe’s Battlegrounds.  by Ian Almond, 256 pages, (Harvard: Harvard University Press, ISBN 978-0674061767), Chapter 5, 139-180. (Retrieved from , 13-5-2021).  Download

Amedoski, Dragana (2017). Introduction of Rice Culture in the Central Balkans (15thand 16thCentury). In:  State and Society in the Balkans before and after Establishment of Ottoman Rule, The Institute of History Belgrade, Collection of Works vol. 35 , Belgrade 2017, 235-256. (Retrieved from, 2-9-2020). Download

Boykov, Grigor (2013). Mastering the Conquered Space: Resurrection of Urban Life in Ottoman Upper Thrace (14th–17thC.). PhD Dissertation, Department of History İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University Ankara April 2013, 432p. (Retrieved from, 27-8-2020). Download

Crow, Bardill and Bayliss (2008). The Water Supply of Byzantine Constantinople. Journal of Roman Studies, Monograph no.11, 2008, Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies. (London: The Roman Society, ISBN 978–0–907764–36–6). Download

Fodor, Pál (2013). Hungary between East and West: The Ottoman Turkish Legacy. In: More Modoque. Die Wurzeln der europäischen Kultur und deren Rezeption im Orient und Okzident. Festschrift für Miklós Maróth zum siebzigsten Geburtstag. (Budapest: Forschungszentrum für Humanwissenschaften der Ungarischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, ISBN 978-615-5133-06-0), 399-419. (Retrieved from 8-8-2020). Download

Fotić, Aleksandar (2011). The Introduction of Coffee and Tobacco to the Mid-West Balkans. In: Acta  Orientalia  Academiae  Scientiarum  Hung.  Volume  64  (1),  89–100  (2011). (Retrieved from, 29-8-2020). Download

Géza, David and Pál Fodor, (2010). Political, Military, Demographic, and Social  Aspects of Ottoman Rule in Hungary. Exhibition on Ottoman Art 16th-17thcentury. Ottoman Art and Architecture in Hungary and in the Center of the Empire. (Istanbul: European Capital of Culture Agency Traditional Arts Directorate, ISBN 978-605-88394-9-6), 27-36. (Retrieved from, 8-8-2020). Download

Katić, Tatjana (2005). Serbia under the Ottoman Rule. In: Österreichische Osthefte, Österreichisches Ost- und Südosteuropa-Institut. Jahrgang 47, Heft 1-4. (Wien: ), 145-158. (Retrieved from, 21-8-2020). Download

Katić, Tatjana (2016). The Ottoman ATTARS and herbal medicine in 16th-century Balkan towns. In: Plants and herbs in traditional Serbian culture. Serbian Folklorist Association, University Library „Svetozar Marković”, Belgrade, edited by Zoja Karanović and Jasmina Dražić. (Belgrade: Serbian Folklorist Association University Library „Svetozar Marković”, ISBN: 978-86-7301-080-9), 141-150. (Retrieved from, 27-8-2020). Download

Katić, Tatjana (2018). Walking through the ravaged city: an eyewitness testimony to the demolition of the Belgrade fortress in 1690 (with Turkish summary).In: Belgrade 1521-1876, editor Dragana Amedoski. (Belgrade: The Institute of History Belgrade), 79-99. (Retrieved from, 16-8-2020). Download

Klusáková, Lud’a (2002). The Road to Constantinople. The Sixteenth-Century Ottoman Towns through Christian Eyes. (Praag: ISV Publishers, 2002, ISBN 80-85866-97-8). 245 pages.
A study of the 26 16th-century silhouette drawings of Ottoman Towns in southeastern Europe, known as the Leiden Sketchbook. View the sketches here.

Koulouri, Christina (2005). Teaching Modern Southeast European History. Alternative Educational Materials, vol. 1-4, CDRSEE, Thessaloniki 2005 (series editor). ISBN 960-86857-3-7. (Retrieved from, 17-5-2021). Download

Krstić, Aleksandar (2017). Which Realm Will You Opt for?” – the Serbian Nobility between the Ottomans and the Hungarians in the 15th Century. In: State and Society in the Balkans before and after Establishment of Ottoman Rule, editors. Srđan Rudić and Selim Aslantaş, The Institute of History Belgrade. Collection of Works, vol.35. (Belgrade: The Institute of History Belgrade), 129-163. (Retrieved from, 16-8-2020). Download

Miljković, Ema (2009). Ottoman Heritage in the Balkans: The Ottoman Empire in Serbia, Serbia in the Ottoman Empire. SDU Faculty of Arts and Sciences Journal of Social Sciences Special Issue on Balkans. (Retrieved from Semantic Scholars, Corpus ID: 54971476, 22-22-1020). Download

Mrgić, Jelena (2011). Wine or  Raki– The Interplay of Climate and Society in Early Modern Ottoman Bosnia. In: Environment & History 17-4 (2011), 613-637. (Cambridgeshire: The White Horse Press,2011) (Retrieved from, 3-9-2020). Download

Mrgić, Jelena (2017). Aqua vitae – Notes on Geographies of Alcohol Production and Consumption in the Ottoman Balkans. In: Етноантрополошки проблеми, н. с. год. 12 св. 4 (2017), 1309-1328. (Retrieved from 27-8-2019). Download

Mujadžević, Dino (2009). Surviving elements of Ottoman legacy in the Balkans in non-Muslim Communities and cultures. In: The Ottoman Legacy and the Balkan Muslim Communities today. Conference Proceedings, Sarajevo, 16-18 October 2009. Editor: Dr Halit Eren. (Istanbul: The Balkans Civilisation Centre, ISBN 978-605-88558-2-3 ), 101-112. (Retrieved from, 8-8-2020). Download

Mullahia, Anila (2015). Balkan’s Landscape as per the Records of Foreign Travelers in Past Centuries. In: Science Direct. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 4 ( 2015 ), 392 – 398 (Retrieved from 27-8-2020). Download

Murgescu, Bogdan and Halil Berktay, (eds.), (2009). The Ottoman Empire, Workbook 1. Course material developed by Center for Democracy and Reconciliation in Southeast Europe (CDRSEE), series editor Christina Koulouri. (Athens: Petros Ballidis and Co, ISBN: 978-960-88963-7-6). Download

Pálffy, Géza (2001). The Impact of the Ottoman Rule on Hungary. Hungarian Studies Review, vol. XXVIII, Nos. 1-2, 109-132. (Retrieved from, 8-8-2020). Download

Popek, Krysztof & Monika Skrzeszewska(eds.) (2019). Turkish Yoke or Pax Ottomana. The Reception of Ottoman Heritage in the Balkan History and Culture. In: Zeszyty Naukowe Towarzystwa Doktorantów Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, 24 (1/2019), (Krakow: Nowstrona, e-ISSN 2082-9213), 201p.(Retrieved from, 29-8-2020). Download

Rudić, Srđan & Selim Aslantaş (eds.), (2017). State and Society in the Balkans before and after Establishment of Ottoman Rule (full text). Publication of The Institute of History Belgrade and Yunus Emre Enstitüsü – Turkish Cultural Centre Belgrade. Institute of History Belgrade Collection of Works, vol. 35, 352 pages. (Belgrade: The Institute of History, 2017). (Retrieved from, 3-9-2020). Download

Stojkovski, Boris (ed.)(2020). Voyages and Travel Accounts in Historiography and Literature. Volume I, Voyages and Travelogues from Antiquity to the Late Middle Ages, pp.338. (Budapest: Trivent, ISBN Hungary 978-615-81689-2-2). (E-book retrieved 12-12-2020). Download

Yerasimos, Stephane, (1991). Les Voyageurs dans l’Empire Ottoman (XIVe-XVIe siècles). Bibliographie, Itinéraires et Inventaire des Lieux Habités. Conseil Suprême d’Atatürk Pour Culture, Langue et Histoire Publications de la Société Turque d’Histoire, Serie VII – No.117 (Ankara: La Société Turque d’Histoire, ISBN 975-16-0290-4). 494p. +69 maps.
Translated into English:
Chapter 9: The route of the imperial ambassadors or “the middle way”, 43-53
Chapter D: Conclusions, 88-92
Selected Bibliography.

Sultans Trail studies

Bassrucker ea. (2021). The Sultans Trail. Strategic Development. Student report  NHL-Stenden, International Tourism Management, by Lisa Bassrucker, Julia Findeisen, Christina Maria Lachner, and Daan Romp. Download

Walda, ea (2021). Cycling Tourism and its Potential for European Cultural Routes Optimisation. A Customer Journey Mapping Analysis of LongDistance Cyclists’ Experiences using a Case Study of European Cultural Routes. Lessons for the Sultans Trail. Bachelor Student Report Breda University of Applied Sciences/Wageningen University & Research, by Kris van Boxtel, Rick van de Maas, Fleur Walda. Download

Brinkmann, ea (2021). Advisory Report: Sultans Trail as a smart destination: sustainable tourism development in South-East Europe.Academic Consultancy Training report Wageningen University m& Research, by Fleur Brinkmann, Marcus Gong, Jan Haak, Cheryl Klaver, Ana Laura Schoorl, Andri Septian and Sarah Walter. Download

Huizen, van B., (2021). The Sultans Trail Research Report. Internship report from NHL-Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Tourism Management. Download

Ionescu, ea (2021). Succesful Cultural Routes. The Sultan’s Trail. Unpublished study from NHL-Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Tourism Management, by Diana Ionescu, Stanislava Kasarova , Miruna Ilie and Hristina Bekrieva, presented at Tourism and Research Conference on January 21, 2021. (Leeuwarden: NHL-Stenden, 2021). Download

Mohamed, Omar (2021). Developing a Marketing Plan for Sultan’s Trail Foundation. Master Thesis  NHL-Stenden University of Applied Sciences, International Business and Management Studies. Download

Naccwa, Faith (2021). Improving the Website and the Online Presence of Sultans Trail on Social Media Platforms. E-Tourism report Breda University of Applied Sciences.Download

Vlaar, Jesper (2021). Marketing Plan Sultans Trail. How would Sultans Trail be able to serve a new Dutch/Belgian Cycling Target Market in the Summer Holiday Season of 2022? Internship Report for Breda University of Applied Sciences, Tourism Academy.  Download